Current Literature References:

1. Vital and Health Statistics, December 1995; 10(193): table 62.
2. "Surveillance for asthma - United States 1960-1995," Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, April 24, 1998; 47(SS-1).
3. Monthly Vital Statistics Report, August 14, 1997; 46(1): table 6.
4. "HHS Targets Efforts on Asthma," Department of Health and Human Services, May 21, 1998.
5. "Asthma: A Concern for Minority Populations," National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, January, 1997.
8. I. Regla, A. Reyes, C Kober, P. Demare, O. Estrada, E. Juaristi, 1997, Syn. Com.,  27(5), 817-823
10. Cullum, V.A., Farmer, J.B., Jack, D. and Levy, G.P., 1969, Brit. J. Pharmacol., 35, 141-51
11. "Pharmacologic Analysis of Drug Receptor Interaction", 2nd Edition, T. Kenakin, 1993, Raven Press
12. "Molecular Mechanics of Drug Interaction", 2nd Edition, C. Coulson, 1994, Taylor & Francis
13. Collin D.T., Jack D., Lunts L.H., Press J.C., Ritchie A.C., Toon P., 1970, J. Med. Chem., 13, 674
14. Bakale R.P,1995,  Spec. Chem,15, 249
15. Collin D.T., et al, 1970, J. Med. Chem. 1970, 13, 674
16. Hartel, et al, 1971, J. Med. Chem., 14 895
17. Hong Y., Gao Y., Xiaoyi N., Zepp C.M., 1994 Tetrahedron Lett., 35(31), 5551-5554
18. Kitamura M., Okuma T., Inoue S., Sayo N., Kumobayashi H., Akutagawa S., Ohta T., Kakaye H., Noyori R., 1988 J. Am. Chem. Soc.,110,  629
19. Mathre D.J., Thompson A.S., Douglas A.W., Hoogsteen K., Carrol  J.D., Corley E.G., Grabowski EJ, 1993, J. Org. Chem, 58 2880
21. a) Corey E.J., Bakshi R.K., Shibata S.J., 1987, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 109, 5551
      b) Corey E.J., Cimprich K.A., 1992, Tetrahedron Lett., 33, 4099
22. a) Quallich G., Woodall T.M., 1993, Tetrahedron Lett., 34, 4145
      b) Quallich G., Woodall T.M., 1993, Synlett, 929
23. a) Mehler T., Martens J., 1993, Tetrahedron Asymmetry, 4, 2299
      b) Mehler T., Martens J., 1993, ibid, 4, 1983
24. Effenberg, Jurgen J., 1997, J. Org. Chem, 62, 3867-3873
27. AHFS Drug Information 94. 1994. Am Soc Hosp Pharm, Bethesda, MD.
28. Spitzer WO et al, 1992, N Engl J Med, 326, 501-506.
29. Crane J et al, 1989 Lancet, 1, 917-922.
30. Mullen ML et al, 1993, JAMA, 270, 1842-1845.
31. McFadden ER, 1995, Ann All Asth Immun,75, 173-176.
32. Sankar M. et al, 1998, Mol. Pharm., 53, 347-354

Web Page References:

6. asthma stasitcs (UK)
7. asthma stasitcs (New Zealand)
9. Image of crystal
25. Side effects of salbutamol
26. pdb of 7 transmembrane regions

Keyword-based general Bibliographic searches:

Libertas system with the Imperial College library database (search strings: salbutamol, beta adrenoceptor)

Science Citation Index database, BIDS ISI (search string: salbutamol ), BIDS ????? (search string: salbutamol) spectral data.

Internet based Search engines:

Altavista , Yahoo , HotbotInfoseek (search strings: salbutamol + albuterol + synthesis + mechanism)

2D Chemical Structure Searches:

Beilstein Crossfire (search string: CAS No = 18559-94-9)

Daylight (search string: SMILES = CC(C)(NCC(C1=CC(CO)=C(O)C=C1)O)C  )

Cambridge Soft Chemfinder System (search string: salbutamol)

20. British Pharmacopoeia 1993 (search string: salbutamol)

3D Chemical Structure Searches:

Quest [Cambridge crystal database of organic and organometallic molecules] (search string: Formula = C13 H21 N O3)

 Brookhaven Protein Structure Database  (Search strings: salbutamol, beta 2 adrenergic, adenylyl cyclase.)

Suitability/Success of Sources:

Libertas system For finding chemical information this source has only limited suitability as Keyword searchs do not contain exceedingly detailed keywords. However for a general text on one topic such as, in this case, the mode of action of the drug was easily obtained.

Science Citation Index database, This source was probably the single most useful source in producing this report. The ability to use very specific keywords and the huge amount of data available in libraries around london made this exceedingly useful for  finding any specific piece of information. The user interface of BIDS EMBASE and the division of references into specific areas made this source a particularly intuitive search engine.

Internet based Search engines: Although there is a huge amount of information on the internet these search engines were not suited to finding chemical information. The huge number of hits for less specific key words and the lack of hits for very specific ones made this source less successful. There was on the whole little information on salbutamols synthesis or reactions but a large amount on asthma in general and also on side effects and applications of the drug. Whilst this could have been a useful tool for obtaining graphics for the report there is little on chemical reactions containing salbutamol and with the notable exception of the image of salbutamol crystals was not suitable.

Beilstein Crossfire Also very useful in the search for specific chemical information the amount of literature searchable is not as great as with BIDS but still exceedingly sucessful.

 MedChem: This proved to be of little use although has the potential for generation much theoretical data (but not terribly useful if experiment results are required).

Cambridge Soft Chemfinder System A useful starting point but of only limited value.

British Pharmacopoeia 1993: on the library CD sever a useful source for data on drugs, however data of this type is generally available on the internet as most pharmaceutical companies have put there drug fact sheets on the internet.

Quest A large number of structures available but SLOW! The structure of salbutamol was obtained from this source but for other 3d structures brookhaven database proved more useful.

Brookhaven Protein Structure Database An excellent source for obtaining three dimensional structures, especially proteins (duh).

This report was composed using Netscape Composer, Microsoft Notepad, Chemdraw,ISIS draw, Corel Photopaint, gNMR and Chem3D pro.
If you have any comments, suggestions or bugs please let me know:


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