The first screen of the reaction products was carried out using transmission FT - IR. The spectrum of PCTFE (Figure I) clearly shoes the C - Cl streatch at 970 and other peaks for the C - F stretches in the 1100 to 1250 region, with no absorbances in the C - H and C=O regions.

Figure I

Following this initial screen, the amide product was analyzed by combustion analysis. In particular, N analysis gives a reasonable assessment of degree of functionalization. Acid functionalization was analyzed by titration and electron microscopy, which also provided an analytical profile for heavy atoms. In this way, a reasonable assessment of the reaction could be obtained. The best method of depth profiling available to us in these cases was ATR - FT -IR.

Choice of Metal carbonyl species:

In several contexts, Cr (CO)6 , Mo(CO)6, and W(CO)6 were used in similar reactions. In no case were significient differences in results obtained. Metals from other groups (Fe(CO)5, Ru3(CO)12) are far less satisfactory.

Choice of PCTFE:

While little difference in the overall chemistry of Kel - F 6061 and Neoflon M400H was observed, the degree of functionalization was dependent on this choice. In general the degree of functionalization was higher with Kel - F 6061. This is consistent with observation in previous cases [17] and due to a combination of a somewhat harder bulk polymer with slighthy larger particle size in the cases of Neoflon.


Reaction of PCTFE with Cr(CO)6 in the presence of cyclohexylamine in DMF at 80C affords a dark product. IR analysis (Figure II) is consistent with formation of the amide as outlined above in Scheme V. Similar results are obtained with other amines such as benzylamine . Since the reactions are analagous, a detailed study of the cyclohexylamine reaction will be described.

Figure II

In the IR spectrum (Figure II), the main features to be noted are the loss of intensity in the C - Cl stretching region (971) and appearance of new peaks for N -H ( 3390 ), C=O (1700 - 1620 ), and C -H (2931 and 2885 ). Darkening of the polymer is normally a sign of elimination related side reactions which are confirmed by the smaller peaks in the region 1500 -1450. Elemental analysis (C 39.06 %, H 3.66 %, Cl 11.37 %, F 24.45 %, and N 6. 12 %) is consistent with a degree of functionalization of 84 % , although the extent of side reaction makes the exact percentage a bit ambiguous.


Reaction with either water or alcohols afforded products consistent with the carboxylate (Scheme VI). In particular the IR spectrum (Figure III) shows peaks at 3490 for O -H and 1680 for C=O . Once again, some elimination side reaction can be seen. Calculation using titrimetric analysis showed the ion exchange capasity for Kel - F and Neoflon to be 0.39 meq/g and 0.239 meq/g, respectively. This value seems low in view of the intensity of the C=O peak in the IR spectrum. It would appear from this analysis that some acid sites do not participate in ion exchange. Such a phenomenon is not unprecedented. It is increasingly recognized that so-called "polymer effects" may significantly change the reactivity and selectivity of an organic reagent or catalyst once anchored to a polymer support.[18] The origins of these polymer effects may be physical or chemical in nature. The various effects are difficult to disentangle and assess individually, yet the influence of these small but significant microenvironmental, steric, electronic and intrapolymeric interactions seems undeniable. An immobilized functionality is in a very different environment from its homogeneous analog and thus its activity is altered. In part, the accessibility of the anchored, reactive sites is affected.


Figure III

Further insight into the functionalization process is gained from electron microscopy. Comparison of the electron micrographs of Kel - F and Neoflon with their functionalized counterparts shows a significant degree of surface roughening and pitting (Figure IV). Experience associates this phenomenon with the previously noted degradation side reaction. It is also noteworthy that elemental analysis indicated no entrained chromium salts.

Figure IV

SEM of native Kel-F 6061

SEM of Kel-F 6061 following conversion to carboxylate

SEM of Neoflon M400H

SEM of Neoflon M400H following conversion to carboxylate

Further insight into depth profiling is obtained by ATR - FT -IR (Figures below). The first spectra are that of the Kel-F polymer modified to the carboxylate. While all spectra below are collected at a single bounce reflection of 45 degrees within a hemispherical internal reflection element with an active area 200 micrometers in diameter, the first spectrum (Figure V) uses a germanium internal reflection element and yields a penetration depth of 0.6 micrometers.

Figure V

It is useful to compare the spectrum in Figure V, to that of Figure VI, of the same sample using a silicon internal reflectance element and examining a penetration depth of 0.7 micrometers. No evidence for surface selectivity can be seen. Indeed, the deeper penetration seems to exhibit what might be a relatively more intense carbonyl band. This may be attributed to the loss of highly functionalized surface material as fines from the highly etched surface.


Figure VI

Similar data, although with less loading and a lesser band intensity are seen with the modification of Neoflon. Figure VII shows the germanium internal reflectance sampling and Figure VIII the deeper silicon sampling. Results are analogous.

Figure VII



Figure VIII

Such considerations are in accord with our working hypothesis and the low titration values. Other reactions mediated by Cr(CO)6 were attempted. When PCTFE and Cr(CO)6 were reacted with higher boiling alcohols ( isobutyl alcohol, 2 - naphthol, and tert - butyl alcohol), a light brown polymer was resulted. IR analysis in each case conforms the product to be unreacted starting material. The rational for this is steric bulkiness of alcohols, which may reduced accessibility to the reaction sites. This may resulted in failure of the reactions. The reaction of PCTFE and Cr(CO)6 with thiophenol and carboxylic acid were also unsuccessful. The IR analysis of former reaction showed the success of the proposed reaction but with the contamination in the form of metal carbonyl which was indicated by bands located at 1982, 2273, 2338 and 2362.